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Exercise 2.39

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Complete the following definitions of reverse (exercise 2.18) in terms of fold-right and fold-left from exercise 2.38:

(define (reverse sequence)
  (fold-right (lambda (x y) <??>) nil sequence))
(define (reverse sequence)
  (fold-left (lambda (x y) <??>) nil sequence))

Exercise 2.38

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The accumulate procedure is also known as fold-right, because it combines the first element of the sequence with the result of combining all the elements to the right. There is also a fold-left, which is similar to fold-right, except that it combines elements working in the opposite direction:

(define (fold-left op initial sequence)
  (define (iter result rest)
    (if (null? rest)
        result
        (iter (op result (car rest))
              (cdr rest))))
  (iter initial sequence))

What are the values of

(fold-right / 1 (list 1 2 3))
(fold-left / 1 (list 1 2 3))
(fold-right list nil (list 1 2 3))
(fold-left list nil (list 1 2 3))

Give a property that op should satisfy to guarantee that fold-right and fold-left will produce the same values for any sequence.

Exercise 2.37

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Suppose we represent vectors v = (vi) as sequences of numbers, and matrices m = (mij) as sequences of vectors (the rows of the matrix). For example, the matrix

is represented as the sequence ((1 2 3 4) (4 5 6 6) (6 7 8 9)). With this representation, we can use sequence operations to concisely express the basic matrix and vector operations. These operations (which are described in any book on matrix algebra) are the following:

We can define the dot product as[17]

(define (dot-product v w)
  (accumulate + 0 (map * v w)))

Fill in the missing expressions in the following procedures for computing the other matrix operations. (The procedure accumulate-n is defined in exercise 2.36.)

(define (matrix-*-vector m v)
  (map <??> m))
(define (transpose mat)
  (accumulate-n <??> <??> mat))
(define (matrix-*-matrix m n)
  (let ((cols (transpose n)))
    (map <??> m)))
[17] This definition uses the extended version of map described in footnote 12. [back]

Exercise 2.36

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The procedure accumulate-n is similar to accumulate except that it takes as its third argument a sequence of sequences, which are all assumed to have the same number of elements. It applies the designated accumulation procedure to combine all the first elements of the sequences, all the second elements of the sequences, and so on, and returns a sequence of the results. For instance, if s is a sequence containing four sequences, ((1 2 3) (4 5 6) (7 8 9) (10 11 12)), then the value of (accumulate-n + 0 s) should be the sequence (22 26 30). Fill in the missing expressions in the following definition of accumulate-n:

(define (accumulate-n op init seqs)
  (if (null? (car seqs))
      nil
      (cons (accumulate op init <??>)
            (accumulate-n op init <??>))))

Exercise 2.35

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Redefine count-leaves from section 2.2.2 as an accumulation:

(define (count-leaves t)
  (accumulate <??> <??> (map <??> <??>)))

Exercise 2.34

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Evaluating a polynomial in x at a given value of x can be formulated as an accumulation. We evaluate the polynomial

using a well-known algorithm called Horner’s rule, which structures the computation as

In other words, we start with an, multiply by x, add an-1, multiply by x, and so on, until we reach a0.[16] Fill in the following template to produce a procedure that evaluates a polynomial using Horner’s rule. Assume that the coefficients of the polynomial are arranged in a sequence, from a0 through an.

(define (horner-eval x coefficient-sequence)
  (accumulate (lambda (this-coeff higher-terms) <??>)
              0
              coefficient-sequence))

For example, to compute 1 + 3x + 5x3 + x5 at x = 2 you would evaluate

(horner-eval 2 (list 1 3 0 5 0 1))
[16] According to Knuth (1981), this rule was formulated by W. G. Horner early in the nineteenth century, but the method was actually used by Newton over a hundred years earlier. Horner’s rule evaluates the polynomial using fewer additions and multiplications than does the straightforward method of first computing an xn, then adding an-1xn-1, and so on. In fact, it is possible to prove that any algorithm for evaluating arbitrary polynomials must use at least as many additions and multiplications as does Horner’s rule, and thus Horner’s rule is an optimal algorithm for polynomial evaluation. This was proved (for the number of additions) by A. M. Ostrowski in a 1954 paper that essentially founded the modern study of optimal algorithms. The analogous statement for multiplications was proved by V. Y. Pan in 1966. The book by Borodin and Munro (1975) provides an overview of these and other results about optimal algorithms. [back]

Exercise 2.33

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Fill in the missing expressions to complete the following definitions of some basic list-manipulation operations as accumulations:

(define (map p sequence)
  (accumulate (lambda (x y) <??>) nil sequence))
(define (append seq1 seq2)
  (accumulate cons <??> <??>))
(define (length sequence)
  (accumulate <??> 0 sequence))

Exercise 2.29

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A binary mobile consists of two branches, a left branch and a right branch. Each branch is a rod of a certain length, from which hangs either a weight or another binary mobile. We can represent a binary mobile using compound data by constructing it from two branches (for example, using list):

(define (make-mobile left right)
  (list left right))

A branch is constructed from a length (which must be a number) together with a structure, which may be either a number (representing a simple weight) or another mobile:

(define (make-branch length structure)
  (list length structure))
  1. Write the corresponding selectors left-branch and right-branch, which return the branches of a mobile, and branch-length and branch-structure, which return the components of a branch.
  2. Using your selectors, define a procedure total-weight that returns the total weight of a mobile.
  3. A mobile is said to be balanced if the torque applied by its top-left branch is equal to that applied by its top-right branch (that is, if the length of the left rod multiplied by the weight hanging from that rod is equal to the corresponding product for the right side) and if each of the submobiles hanging off its branches is balanced. Design a predicate that tests whether a binary mobile is balanced.
  4. Suppose we change the representation of mobiles so that the constructors are

    (define (make-mobile left right)
      (cons left right))
    (define (make-branch length structure)
      (cons length structure))

    How much do you need to change your programs to convert to the new representation?

Exercise 2.28

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Write a procedure fringe that takes as argument a tree (represented as a list) and returns a list whose elements are all the leaves of the tree arranged in left-to-right order. For example,

(define x (list (list 1 2) (list 3 4)))

(fringe x)
(1 2 3 4)

(fringe (list x x))
(1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4)

Exercise 2.27

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Modify your reverse procedure of exercise 2.18 to produce a deep-reverse procedure that takes a list as argument and returns as its value the list with its elements reversed and with all sublists deep-reversed as well. For example,

(define x (list (list 1 2) (list 3 4)))

x
((1 2) (3 4))

(reverse x)
((3 4) (1 2))

(deep-reverse x)
((4 3) (2 1))
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